Tax-free municipal bonds produced positive returns and outperformed taxable bonds in the second quarter of 2016. California bonds performed in line with the national muni index. With solid fundamentals and relatively attractive yields, munis generated strong demand as global growth expectations slowed, interest rates on many high-quality government bonds in developed markets were minimal or negative, and volatility escalated after the British vote to leave the European Union. Yields decreased across the municipal yield curve, with long-term rates reaching record lows. In the municipal market, longer-maturity bonds outperformed shorter-maturity issues, and lower-quality securities outperformed higher-quality bonds as investors continued to search for yield.
The California Tax-Free Bond Fund returned 3.21% in the quarter compared with 3.21% for the Lipper California Municipal Debt Funds Average. For the 12 months ended June 30, 2016, the fund returned 9.18% versus 9.02% for the Lipper California Municipal Debt Funds Average. The fund's average annual total returns were 9.18%, 6.54%, and 5.33% for the 1-, 5-, and 10-year periods, respectively, as of June 30, 2016. The fund's expense ratio was 0.50% as of its fiscal year ended February 29, 2016.
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The portfolio is overweight revenue-backed bonds and underweight GOs (particularly GOs issued by local governments) as a result of our longer-term concerns regarding pension funding. Nevertheless, we remain comfortable with the State of California being a large guarantor in the fund, reflecting the state's solid fiscal management and resilient economy. Within the revenue sector, health care bonds, which typically offer above-average yields, were the largest allocation. Our overweight position in bonds with maturities of 15 years and longer provided the portfolio with added yield and should serve us well going forward, as we believe the Fed will remain cautious about tightening monetary policy in a low inflation and slow growth global economy.
We believe that the municipal bond market remains a high-quality market that offers good opportunities for long-term investors seeking tax-free income. Fundamentals are sound overall, and technical support should persist as global economic uncertainties further increase demand for the relatively high-quality and somewhat insulated municipal bond asset class. Amid increased volatility, we expect the Fed to approach the next rate hike with an added degree of caution and believe we could remain in a low rate environment for some time. Ultimately, we believe T. Rowe Price's independent credit research is our greatest strength and will remain an asset for our investors as we navigate the current market environment.